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2 edition of survey of diuretic therapy and electrolyte abnormalities in the elderly. found in the catalog.

survey of diuretic therapy and electrolyte abnormalities in the elderly.

Sandra Kate Clayton

survey of diuretic therapy and electrolyte abnormalities in the elderly.

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  • 8 Currently reading

Published in Bradford .
Written in English


Edition Notes

M.Pharm. dissertation. Typescript.

SeriesDissertations
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL13978527M


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survey of diuretic therapy and electrolyte abnormalities in the elderly. by Sandra Kate Clayton Download PDF EPUB FB2

A special case for diuretic therapy. Hyams DE. Diuretics are among the most widely prescribed drugs, especially for the elderly with cardiac failure or hypertension. Progressive structural and functional changes occur in the kidneys after the fourth decade, leading to impairment of the ability of the kidneys to handle sodium, water and by: Old age is one of the most recognized risk factors for diuretic-associated electrolyte and acid-base disorders.

Hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia are the most common electrolyte abnormalities found among the elderly population taking diuretics. Both conditions are associated with short and long-term morbidity as well as by: 6.

Studies investigating diuretic therapy-induced electrolyte disorders have mainly focused on the effects of thiazide diuretics. In a randomized controlled trial in hypertensive patients, serum potassium levels were significantly lower in patients treated with thiazide by:   Normal physiological changes of aging increase the likelihood of fluid-electrolyte disorders in the elderly surgical patient.

The most important of these changes are a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), decreased urinary concentrating ability, and narrowed limits for the excretion of water, sodium, potassium, and by: occur in the course of diuretic therapy are attributed to electrolyte disturbances or volume contraction, and are treated accordingly, but not with quinine.

The second recent study to challenge the notion that diuretics are a common cause of muscle cramps was a cross-sectional survey of general medicalCited by: 9. Muscle cramps, notably nocturnal leg cramps, are common symptoms experienced by general medical patients, particularly the elderly.

1 Their etiology is varied; most commonly, these cramps are idiopathic. With the notable (and relatively rare) exceptions of serious electrolyte imbalances including hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia, Cited by: 9.

Prescription of a thiazide diuretic in primary care is associated with a high frequency of hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia.

Thiazides should be prescribed at low dose and the risk of hyponatraemia, especially in the elderly, should be considered and monitored for when prescribing these by: Fluid and Electrolyte Abnormalities Common in Elderly. Fluid and electrolyte levels in the body are carefully maintained through different homeostasis mechanisms.

These mechanisms are often altered in the elderly due to a number of reasons like age-related changes, diseases and medications. This could lead to fluid and electrolyte imbalance. tions, electrolytes may influencedrug therapy or vice versa (Meyers ). This chapter focuses on the homeostasis and therapeutic man - agement of fluids and electrolytes in various pediatric populations as well survey of diuretic therapy and electrolyte abnormalities in the elderly.

book select electrolyte abnormalities in pediatric patients. FLUIDS Composition of Body Fluids Fluid Distribution/TBWFile Size: KB. Diuretic Use in the Elderly: Potential for Diuretic-induced Hypokalemia WALTER FLAMENBAUM, MD The more potent "loop" diuretics are being used with Increasing frequency.

The elderly constitute a growing portion of the population undergoing treatment with by: electrolyte disorders. Diuretic therapy itself and disorders of serum sodium and potassium were risk factors for an adverse outcome.

Keywords: Diuretics, Electrolyte disorders, Outcome Background Diuretics are a mainstay of therapy for a wide variety of diseases ranging from hypertension to the nephrotic by: Title:Diuretic-Associated Electrolyte Disorders in the Elderly: Risk Factors, Impact, Management and Prevention VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 1 Author(s):Kareeann Sok Fun Khow, Su Yin Lau, Jordan Yuanzhi Li and Tuck Yean Yong Affiliation:Department of General Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders Drive, Bedford Park, South AustraliaAustralia.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. Jan;7(1) Fluid and electrolytes in the elderly. Allison SP(1), Lobo DN. Author information: (1)Section of Surgery, University Hospital, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intake of water and electrolytes is inseparable from the ingestion of nutrients by normal or artificial by:   Diuretics are generally safe.

Side effects include increased urination and sodium loss. Diuretics can also affect blood potassium levels. If you take a thiazide diuretic, your potassium level can drop too low (hypokalemia), which can. Abnormal water balance is an excess or deficit of total body water relative to electrolyte content, and it is determined by measuring the plasma sodium concentration.

1 Hyponatremia (relative. Electrolyte and acid-base disorders are commonly encountered adverse effects of various diuretic agents, which are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality especially in elderly patients. Therapy with a loop- or thiazide-type diuretic may be associated with a variety of fluid and electrolyte complications, including volume depletion, azotemia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, hyperuricemia, and hypomagnesemia.

In addition, the potassium-sparing diuretics (amiloride, triamterene, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) can induce hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis, while carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

Symptoms Of Electrolyte Imbalance In Elderly: Causes & Treatment Salina Alternative Therapies Septem Electrolytes (i.e. minerals) such as – potassium, sodium and magnesium are needed by our body to help.

The only comprehensive work to cover all aspects of diuretic agents, the book discusses the pharmacology and toxicology of diuretic agents as well as the physiological effects.

Experts in the field present the principles and experimental approaches for the study of interactions between pharmacologic compounds in relation to specific target organs. ELDERLY The elderly are more susceptible to electrolyte imbalance than younger patients.

Treatment should begin with a lower initial dose of the diuretic (commonly about 50% of the adult dose) and then adjusted carefully according to renal function, plasma electrolytes and diuretic response. Thiazide diureticsFile Size: 74KB. Thiazide diuretic prescription and electrolyte abnormality in primary care Article in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 61(1) January with.

The elderly population in the United States continues to grow and is expected to double by With aging, there are degenerative changes in many organs and the kidney is no exception.

After 40 years of age, there is an increase in cortical glomerulosclerosis and a decline in both glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. These changes may be associated with an Cited by: Salt substitutes may contain potassium, potassium sparing diuretics may cause elevation of potassium and should not be used in patients with renal dysfunction Medical Management of hyperkalemia: Monitor ECG, cation exchange resin (Kayexalate), IV sodium bicarb, IV calcium gluconate, regular insulin hypertonic destroese IV, and B-2 agonists, limit dietary potassium.

Electrolyte disorders are most often caused by a loss of bodily fluids through prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating.

They may also develop due to Author: Kimberly Holland. Electrolyte abnormalities in the elderly are common and it is most important to establish if drug treatment is the cause, as this is so easily remediable.

The vast majority of electrolyte disturbances will settle with treatment of the underlying condition. Great attention must be paid to fluid balance to establish if the patient is receiving too little, which could induce Cited by:   Older patients are especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of thiazide diuretics, including renal-electrolyte disturbances, gout, hyperglycemia, NEJM Journal Watch reviews over scientific and medical journals to present important clinical research findings and insightful commentaryAuthor: Allan S.

Brett. Diuretics (acetazolamide, furosemide) are sometimes used to prevent or reduce the accumulation of fluid in the ventricles. Electrolyte Disorders. Diuretics can be used in various situations associated with dyselectrolytemia.

They can increase potassium excretion in hyperkalemic states (loop diuretics, thiazides), increase calcium excretion. • Low-dose thiazide diuretics remain first-line therapy for older patients. Thiazides in Elderly Dickerson L.

American Academy of Family Physician's L O L A L A N D NAVIGATING THE CHALLENGES OF ELDERLY CARE • Diuretics are effective in producing diuresis and relieving symptoms in acute CHF in the short term.

Start studying nursing fundamentals fluids and electrolytes. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. (elderly and infants)-determine a specific imbalance is present and its severity, etiology, and characteristics -diuretics-intravenous therapy.

IV therapy-vascular access devices. An electrolyte panel is used to screen for imbalances of electrolytes in the blood and measure acid-base balance and kidney function. This test can also monitor the progress of treatment relating.

Potassium-sparing diuretics are often used as adjuncts to thiazides or loop diuretics. When given with thiazides, they counteract the increased glucose and uric acid levels associated with thiazide diuretic therapy (Woodrow, ).

Osmotic diuretics: Osmotic diuretics such as mannitol and urea are used to reduce intracranial or intraoccular.

Furosemide therapy may cause electrolyte abnormalities (i.e., hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia) which can exaggerate the degree of QTc prolongation and increase the potential for torsade de pointes. Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Coadministration of loop diuretics and Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) may result in severe.

The National Kidney Foundation Primer on Kidney Diseases is your ideal companion in clinical nephrology. From anatomy, histology, and physiology, through the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, fluid and electrolyte disorders, hypertension, dialysis, and kidney transplantation, this trusted manual from Elsevier and the National Kidney Foundation.

Limited use as a diuretic -Tolerance develops rapidly ( days)--Self-limiting diuresis -Risk of systemic acidemia -Short-term therapy or combination with other diuretics Glaucoma -Role of CA in secretion of aqueous humor of eye (no tolerance) -Lowers intraocular pressure Prevent acute high altitude sickness.

Yekaterina Opsha, in Side Effects of Drugs Annual, Chlorothiazide. Evaluation of the effectiveness of oral metolazone versus intravenous (IV) chlorothiazide as add-on therapy to loop diuretics in hospitalized patients with ADHF and renal dysfunction is the purpose of the following retrospective cohort study which enrolled 55 patients.

The primary. Purchase Diuretic Agents - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBNThe high prevalence of diseases in the elderly that limit renal perfusion (eg, hypertension, congestive heart failure, or renal disease itself) increases the risk for dehydration.3 Cerebrovascular Cited by: takes less and he may even be able to stop diuretic therapy for periods of time (Table 1).

Table 1. Diuretic therapy − ESC guidelines Initial diuretic treatment Loop diuretics or thiazides. Always administered in addition to an ACE inhibitor If GFR therapy prescribed synergistically with loop diureticsFile Size: 2MB.

Molly Varga BVetMed DZooMed MRCVS, in Textbook of Rabbit Medicine (Second Edition), Diuretics Furosemide. Furosemide is a loop diuretic that exerts its effect on the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle. It increases excretion of calcium, magnesium and hydrogen as well as renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate.

Controlled studies on the effects of prolonged diuretic therapy in elderly patients with CHF are ic effects have mostly been studied in. The external fluid and electrolyte balance between the body and its environment is defined by the intake of fluid and electrolytes versus the output from the kidneys, the gastrointestinal tract.Start studying Chapter 23 Diuretic therapy and Drugs for renal failure.

Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.electrolyte imbalances, sever kidney or liver dysfunction, diabetes (diuretics will INCREASE BLOOD GLUCOSE), anuria. the K+ sparing diuretics should not be given to patients whith hyperkalemia and are not recommended for pediatric patients.